ABA Science-Based Research
Early Intensive Behavioral Treatment: Replication of the UCLA Model in a Community Setting.
Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics. 27(2) Supplement 2:S145-S155, April 2006.
COHEN, HOWARD Ph.D. 1; AMERINE-DICKENS, MILA M.S. 2; SMITH, TRISTRAM Ph.D. 3
Abstract: Although previous studies have shown favorable results with early intensive behavioral treatment (EIBT) for children with autism, it remains important to replicate these findings, particularly in community settings. The authors conducted a 3-year prospective outcome study that compared 2 groups: (1) 21 children who received 35 to 40 hours per week of EIBT from a community agency that replicated Lovaas' model of EIBT and (2) 21 age- and IQ-matched children in special education classes at local public schools. A quasi-experimental design was used, with assignment to groups based on parental preference. Assessments were conducted by independent examiners for IQ (Bayley Scales of Infant Development or Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence), language (Reynell Developmental Language Scales), nonverbal skill (Merrill-Palmer Scale of Mental Tests), and adaptive behavior (Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales). Analyses of covariance, with baseline scores as covariates and Year 1-3 assessments as repeated measures, revealed that, with treatment, the EIBT group obtained significantly higher IQ (F = 5.21, p = .03) and adaptive behavior scores (F = 7.84, p = .01) than did the comparison group. No difference between groups was found in either language comprehension (F = 3.82, p = .06) or nonverbal skill. Six of the 21 EIBT children were fully included into regular education without assistance at Year 3, and 11 others were included with support; in contrast, only 1 comparison child was placed primarily in regular education. Although the study was limited by the nonrandom assignment to groups, it does provide evidence that EIBT can be successfully implemented in a community setting. (Read original abstract)
(C) 2006 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
Behavior Modification, Vol. 26, No. 1, 49-68 (2002)
© 2002 SAGE Publications
Intensive Behavioral Treatment at School for 4- to 7-Year-Old Children with Autism
A 1-Year Comparison Controlled Study
University of Rochester
Akershus Central Hospital
This study was designed to evaluate 1 year of intensive treatment for 4- to 7-year-old children with autism. An independent clinician assigned children to either behavioral treatment (n = 13) or eclectic treatment (n = 12). Assignment was based on availability of personnel to supervise treatment and was not influenced by child characteristics or family preference.The two treatment groups received similar amounts of treatment (M = 28.52 hours per week at the child’s school). Children in the behavioral treatment group made significantly larger gains on standardized tests than did children in the eclectic treatment group. Results suggest that some 4- to 7-year-olds may make large gains with intensive behavioral treatment, that such treatment can be successfully implemented in school settings, and that specific aspects of behavioral treatment (not just its intensity) may account for favorable outcomes.
(Read original abstract)
A comparison of intensive behavior analytic and eclectic treatments for young children with autism
Jane S. Howard, Coleen R. Sparkman, Howard G. Cohen, Gina Green and Harold Stanislaw California State University, Stanislaus, Psychology Department, 801 W. Monte Vista Avenue, Turlock, CA 95382, USA The Kendall School, Modesto, CA 95354, USA Valley Mountain Regional Center, Stockton, CA 95269, USA University of North Texas and San Diego State University, San Diego, USA Received 25 June 2004; revised 5 September 2004; accepted 12 September 2004. Available online 23 February 2005.
We compared the effects of three treatment approaches on preschool-age children with autism spectrum disorders. Twenty-nine children received intensive behavior analytic intervention (IBT; 1:1 adult:child ratio, 25–40 h per week). A comparison group (n = 16) received intensive “eclectic” intervention (a combination of methods, 1:1 or 1:2 ratio, 30 h per week) in public special education classrooms (designated the AP group). A second comparison group (GP) comprised 16 children in non-intensive public early intervention programs (a combination of methods, small groups, 15 h per week). Independent examiners administered standardized tests of cognitive, language, and adaptive skills to children in all three groups at intake and about 14 months after treatment began. The groups were similar on key variables at intake. At follow-up, the IBT group had higher mean standard scores in all skill domains than the AP and GP groups. The differences were statistically significant for all domains except motor skills. There were no statistically significant differences between the mean scores of the AP and GP groups. Learning rates at follow-up were also substantially higher for children in the IBT group than for either of the other two groups. These findings are consistent with other research showing that IBT is considerably more efficacious than “eclectic” intervention.
Lovaas Institute (pdf)
Intensive Early Intervention using Behavior Therapy is the Single Most Widely Accepted Treatment for Autism. It is No Longer to be Considered either an Experimental or an Investigative Treatment. In fact, it is the only evidence-based treatment available for autism.
The RSAFFRAN Website: ABA Resources for Recovery from Autism/PDD/Hyperlexia
Intensive Behavioral Treatment for Children With Autism: (pdf) Four-Year Outcome and Predictors
Glen O. Sallows and Tamlynn D. Graupner
Comparing Autism Support Methods (pdf) Current Interventions in Autism — A Brief Analysis (WritghtsLaw)